How to use Free Software to learn Japanese, and more.

Basic vocabulary

January 31, 2021 — Tatsumoto

After finishing kanji, kana and essential grammar the bulk of your AJATT journey will consist of learning vocabulary. As the first step in this process, it makes sense to go through a basic vocabulary deck containing the most frequent words in Japanese. As before, you are going to use Anki to do it.

Before diving in to full-fledged immersion learning, memorizing the most frequently used 1 or 2 thousand words is a great way to jumpstart your comprehension. After that learning vocabulary from immersion becomes easier because you'll at least be able to recognize the majority of words in a given sentence. You will still have to look up many words per page, but the process is going to take less effort.


Focus on understanding

On this site I recommend that you learn to understand Japanese through immersion before trying to speak it. Once you can understand the language, learning to speak doesn't take any effort.

The Anki deck I'm about to introduce below is going to help you understand the language. Cards in the deck are designed to test your recognition instead of forcing you to recall words from memory.

Anki deck

In our community Ankidrone Starter Pack is the generally recommended Anki deck for newcomers to Japanese who want to quickly learn basic vocabulary before they start reading. Since the first release in February 2020 it has helped many people and received positive feedback.

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Structure

The deck consists of 4 subdecks. The first 3 contain sentences extracted from JLPT Tango books, The 4th is a Core10k deck, totaling in a bit over 13 000 cards.

  • Ankidrone Starter Pack
    1. JLPT Tango N5
    2. JLPT Tango N4
    3. JLPT Tango N3
    4. Core10k

Most cards are preformatted as targeted sentence cards (TSC), the ideal card template for both beginners and advanced learners. Although learning sentences is the best way to get familiar with the ways language is used and grammar structures are formed, in practice when a new learner starts with one of the premade sentence decks available on AnkiWeb, it is rare for all sentences to introduce only a single unknown word. One way to deal with it is to make isolated vocab cards. TSCs bypass the problem by making the target word the only tested piece of knowledge while retaining the context and the ability to read the full sentence.

Each card includes speech recordings stored in Opus format. It offers great compression and remarkable audio quality at low bitrates.

screenshot

A card from the Tango N3 subdeck

Tango decks

Tango decks are based on JLPT Tango textbooks designed to prepare for the JLPT. Cards are ordered in such a way that most sentences only introduce a single new word or grammar pattern.

The order of cards and focus on words commonly used in daily life in Japan makes these decks an ideal instrument to complete the basic vocabulary stage.

Core10k

Because of the outdated corpus Core10k is not recommended for beginners (it is based on newspapers from the early 90s), so it is placed at the end of the list. Use it to supplement your sentence bank in the sentence mining phase. Don't grind it right away.

Core10k is a very famous deck among Japanese learners. You can find it online in many places as Core2k/3k/6k/10k/33k/60k. Most Core decks are formatted as WCCs which in my opinion is not a good card template overall. Because Core cards have only the word on the front, they are significantly harder than Tango. In Ankidrone Starter Pack Core10k cards are also formatted as TSCs, making them easy to learn and review.

How to study with the deck

  1. Make sure to enable Anki V2 (or V3) scheduler to be able to review all the subdecks at once.

  2. Learn all cards from Tango N5. However, if you've already completed the Kanji Transition deck, skip Tango N5 because they're identical and differ only in their card templates.

  3. Start sentence mining using TV-shows with Japanese subtitles, and later manga and novels.

    Sentence mining is the process of finding sentences with words you don't know in your immersion and making them into sentence cards. The browser add-on Yomichan simplifies this process to a single click, so that all you need to do to add a card to your deck is hover over a word and click the + button in the popup. mpvacious is an add-on for mpv that works similarly to subs2srs and can be used together with Yomichan to create Anki cards while watching subtitled content.

  4. While sentence mining, learn Tango N4 and N3 at a reduced pace. It is critical not to spend too much time on beginner decks and focus on mining.

  5. The rest can be used to aid your learning process in the later stages. Refer to Core10k when you have trouble finding example sentences.

Tips

  • If you can't seem to remember a card, try Mortician. The add-on postpones difficult cards preventing them from stealing your time.
  • Feel free to skip words that exist in languages you know. Examples include many katakana words, such as タクシー, エアコン, イクラ. Even though they're pronounced differently in your language, you learn them easily from immersion alone.
  • Don't do too many new cards a day. At first, it may seem easy, but eventually Anki will overwhelm you with reviews. Our recommended boundaries are 10-20 new cards a day.
  • Don't take English translations literally. The English translations of the example sentences often don't match word-by-word. To understand their meanings in Japanese you need to know the underlying grammar structures. Studying sentences can't completely replace a grammar guide. If there are grammar patterns that trip you up, look them up in a dictionary like Jisho.org or on Google.

Changelog

Changes in version 5:

  • Added word audio to TSCs in Tango N3 and Tango N4.
  • Fixed small mistakes.

Changes in version 4:

  • Converted all remaining sentence cards to TSCs

Changes in version 3:

  • Added JLPT Tango N3 (Thanks Perditio)
  • Added a separate note type for SWCs to distinguish them from sentence cards.
  • Improved definitions on SWCs
  • Added pronunciations to SWCs that didn't contain any audio
  • Fixed typos in JLPT Tango N5 (Thanks zofpz)

Changes in version 2:

  • Audio files were repacked, silence trimmed, bitrate increased.
  • Included a description explaining how to use the deck.
  • Core10k vocabulary sorted using the Netflix frequency list.

Similar Anki decks

The resources page contains a Vocabulary section with Anki decks suggested by our members.

AnkiWeb has a wide variety of premade decks for Japanese. When browsing the catalog, I recommend you prefer decks that contain audio recordings and example sentences. It is important that the example sentences always appear on the front of the cards because it is easier to learn words when you see them in context. If you download an incorrectly formatted deck, make sure to fix the card template in settings.

A little trick you can do to filter results is search AnkiWeb with Google.

Tags: vocab, anki